The Age of the Earth

At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere. Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water. The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is uneven. The main mechanism that brings deep water to the surface is upwelling, which is more common in regions closer to the equator. Upwelling is also influenced by factors such as the topography of the local ocean bottom and coastlines, the climate, and wind patterns. Overall, the mixing of deep and surface waters takes far longer than the mixing of atmospheric CO 2 with the surface waters, and as a result water from some deep ocean areas has an apparent radiocarbon age of several thousand years.

The world’s oldest man and Auschwitz death camp survivor has died at the incredible age 113

Dating The dating of Lydian Lion coins is “the most challenging question in ancient Greek numismatic scholarship,” according to Nicholas Cahill and John H. Alyattes was the father of Kroisos Croesus , the Lydian king of legendary wealth who was likely the first to strike coins of pure gold and silver. Alyattes is infrequently referred to as Alyattes II.

My collection of K&E slide rules. K&E (ca. )This is the probably the oldest in my collection, dating back to the year it was first introduced (serial number places it to ).

Find out if your sibling rank influences the way you relate to others May 28, Shutterstock Are you a take-charge firstborn—or the attention-hungry baby of the family? Where you fall in your family’s birth-order hierarchy helps shape your personality and plays a significant role in your relationship. Figuring out your own birth-order personality, and that of your significant other, is simply one strategy you can use to assess your compatibility, adds Catherine Salmon, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Redlands in California, and coauthor of the upcoming book, The Myth of the Middle Child.

Here’s what you need to know about birth order types—and how they mix, match, mesh or clash. Firstborns These children tend to be conscientious, ambitious, organized and—in relationships—dominant. Says Cane, “Firstborns like to be in control. In the case of firsts, oldest sons tend to be take-charge types, leaders. Oldest females, on the other hand, are more likely to be bossy, confident and aggressive than their younger sisters.

Middles Middle children are the least defined of the types there can only be one eldest and one baby, but middles shift depending on how many there are in the whole family. That said, they can be predictable in the best sense of that word.

List of oldest buildings in Scotland

See Article History Beowulf, heroic poem, the highest achievement of Old English literature and the earliest European vernacular epic. It deals with events of the early 6th century and is believed to have been composed between and Although originally untitled, it was later named after the Scandinavian hero Beowulf, whose exploits and character provide its connecting theme. There is no evidence of a historical Beowulf, but some characters, sites, and events in the poem can be historically verified.

Lions have been considered kings of the jungle, and symbols of kingly authority, from time immemorial. One of the most fascinating coins of all time, a coin that I believe is the first true coin, features one the most fascinating lions ever to appear on a coin.

Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted.

Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.

As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Due to their esthetic and decorative nature, these flasks were infrequently discarded unless broken so many survived to the present day. Figured flasks also include c alabash bottles example below , which are covered separately here because of their distinctive shape, and some flasks that fit the form description but are just embossed with lettering, i.

Unlike most other types of liquor bottles which are generally more common without embossing, figured flasks are by definition embossed since the embossed motifs and molded designs are what defines them as figured flasks, though many shapes are also unique to this group e. Unembossed flasks with shapes similar to some of the later s primarily figured flasks are considered generically in the “Flask not considered figured ” category.

Chauvet Cave

The article’s author, Dan Eden, made a very fine job presenting the truth so I will mostly keep it as is. Of course, I will bring additions and connect the dots. This story will take you in a long journey, spanning for , years, interlocking events and puzzling together our financial history.

If you’re a single woman over 50, have you ever wondered “what do year-old men want in bed?” Check out this blog to find out what it’s like dating at

How to do it with grace and treat the lady well also. I agree, some guys go about it all wrong, even staying in that relationship for too long to avoid hurt feelings. Man up, but do it with compassion. Dawson D My biggest barometer of an alpha male is how a man handles himself with a pack of dogs or any animal with that pack mentality. With some dogs you need to be stern, while others need compassion and encouragement.

All animals can sense weakness…its in their nature. Ya good point, never really thought of it like that — thanks bro. Mike Maybe sometimes you will be the one who needs to be put in his place also. You need a barometer with a more accurate or varied detector. Say if I was to meet you I would size you up in about 5 seconds and your dogs would then follow me. Just retorting with more redneck logic. You and balto have a nice life.

Bongstar Dogs usually like me despite the fact that I could to the most horrible things to them if I wanted. I can even think about it and yet they still seem confident that I am probably a buddy.

Hindu History

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.

We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libby, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon (

Johnsen, Linda Hindu History The history of Hinduism is unique among the world religions in that it has no founder or date of origin. While most major religions derive from new ideas taught by a charismatic leader, Hinduism is simply the religion of the people of India, which has gradually developed over four thousand years. The origins and authors of its sacred texts are largely unknown. Although today’s Hinduism differs significantly from earlier forms of Indian religion, its roots date back as far as BC, making it one of the oldest surviving religions.

Because of its age, the early history of Hinduism is unclear. The most ancient writings have yet to be deciphered, so for the earliest periods scholars must rely on educated guesses based on archaeology and contemporary texts. In the last few decades, the history of India’s religion has also become a matter of political controversy. The history of any nation or individual is an important part of its self-identity, and this is especially true of India, which so recently gained independence after centuries of colonial rule.

The controversy over India’s history centers on the origin of the Aryan culture, as we shall see in more detail below. The so-called Indus Valley civilization also known as the “Harappan civilization” for one of its chief cities is thought to have originated as early as BC and to have reached is height between to BC, at which point it encompassed over , square miles and traded with Mesopotamia.

Some writings of this period has been discovered, but unfortunately in such small amounts that they have yet to be deciphered.

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Kristal survived two World Wars and the Nazi death camp to become the oldest man alive Image: Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email The world’s oldest man, an Auschwitz death camp survivor, has died at the incredible age of Yisrael Kristal, who sadly passed away weeks before his th birthday, was born on September 15, He was recognised in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the oldest man on earth.

Kristal lived in Haifa, Israel, and lived through both World Wars.

The real heart of the age-of-the-earth debate (if “debate” is the right word) is always radiometric dating. There are lots of ways to guesstimate ages, and geologists knew the earth was old a long time ago (and I might add that they were mostly Christian creationist geologists). But they didn’t know how etric dating actually allows the measurement of absolute ages, and so it is.

Article Relationships and Age Difference A lot of people may say that age is a state of mind, that a person is only as old as they feel. That is an upbeat and optimistic approach to aging; however the question is if that applies when it comes to relationships. It has quite often been acceptable for a male to be the older person in a relationship. Some issues can arise if the opposite happens; a younger man and an older woman. In addition, there can be some issues as well, if the male is many years older than the female.

It is possible to have a secure and loving relationship in which there is an age difference, if both people involved understand certain issues that may arise and they can work together to resolve them. The most important factor to understand is that although our bodies will show our age to a certain degree, age is most significant when it relates to maturity. Whether you find yourself to be the younger or the older person in a relationship, take into account whether your maturity levels match.

You may find in life that a fifty year old and a thirty year old can be very similar in regard to their maturity level. This all depends on their life experiences, personal outlooks and goals.

Age disparity in sexual relationships

Red horse head, below and to the left of the yellow horse heads. These horse heads and signs are in a small alcove, above a flat floor. Just a few lines have been used to outline more clearly the shape of a small mammoth, about 20 cm wide, taken up by the flowstone or stalagmite cascade at the entrance to the Brunel Chamber. I have highlighted the shape in the right hand photograph. The zone is heavily covered with calcite.

The Incas was the largest Empire in South America in the Pre-Columbian era. This civilization flourished in the areas of present-day Ecuador, Peru, and Chile and had its administrative, military and political center located at Cusco which lies in modern-day Peru.

Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work. The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.

The fact that one wristwatch has failed to keep time properly cannot be used as a justification for discarding all watches. How many creationists would see the same time on five different clocks and then feel free to ignore it? Yet, when five radiometric dating methods agree on the age of one of the Earth’s oldest rock formations Dalrymple , p. The claim that the methods produce bad results essentially at random does not explain why these “bad results” are so consistently in line with mainstream science.

Claims that the assumptions of a method may be violated Certain requirements are involved with all radiometric dating methods. These generally include constancy of decay rate and lack of contamination gain or loss of parent or daughter isotope. Creationists often attack these requirements as “unjustified assumptions,” though they are really neither “unjustified” nor “assumptions” in most cases.

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